Observational Data

The source of observed temperature data was roughly 4100 weather stations measuring daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation during 1950-2006 in ten of the central-eastern North American Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs), from the National Weather Service’s Cooperative Observer Program.

Model Projection Data

The climate output that was analyzed was produced by nine global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3), a critical source of data to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). Results are based on three emission scenarios, A2, A1B, and B1, in the order of greatest greenhouse gas emissions to least emissions by the end of the century.

The coarse climate projections were downscaled to a 0.1° latitude x 0.1° longitude grid over ten LCCs and debiased against observed temperature and precipitation from station observations within the National Weather Service’s Cooperative Observer Program. By interpolating and debiasing probability distribution functions and their attributes, a realistic representation of the variance and extremes of temperature and precipitation was achieved, in addition to a realistic representation of the means of both variables. In computing the projected changes in a variable, the difference in the mean of that variable was computed from 1961-2000 to either 2046-2065 (mid-21st century) or 2081-2100 (late 21st century)

CMIP3 Models

CCCMA_CGCM3_1 = Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis

CNRM_CM3 = Meteo-France / Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques

CSIRO_MK3_0 = CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Australia

CSIRO_MK3_5 = CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Australia

GFDL_CM2_0 = US Department of Commerce / NOAA / Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

GISS_MODEL_E_R = NASA / Goddard Institute for Space Studies, US

MIUB_ECHO_G = Meteorological Institute University of Bonn, Germany

MPI ECHAM5 = Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany

MRI_CGCM2_3_2a = Meteorological Research Institute, Japan

Project Funding

The statistical downscaling project was funded by: (1) Michigan Department of Natural Resources through an Environmental Protection Agency grant with the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, (2) Upper Midwest and Great Lakes Landscape Conservation Cooperative, and (3) Wisconsin Focus on Energy.

Developers

The statistical downscaling of climate projections was performed by Dr. David Lorenz, and the analysis, map production, and website development was performed by Dr. Michael Notaro, both at the Nelson Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Temperature

Average temperature (degrees Fahrenheit) for each day is computed by adding the daily maximum and minimum temperatures and dividing by two.

Precipitation

Average seasonal or annual precipitation is shown in inches.

Maximum Temperature

Average daily maximum (daily high) temperature is shown in degrees Fahrenheit.

Minimum Temperature

Average daily minimum (daily low) temperature is shown in degrees Fahrenheit.

Diurnal Temperature Range

Average diurnal temperature (degrees Fahrenheit) is computed by substracting the average daily minimum temperature from the average daily maximum temperature.

Growing Season Length

The length of the growing season is defined here as the number of days between the last spring freeze and first autumn freeze, where a freeze is when the daily low temperature drops below 32°F.

Date of First Fall Freeze

The first fall freeze is defined as the first day, after mid-summer, with a low temperature below 32°F.

Date of Last Spring Freeze

The last spring freeze is defined as the last day, between January 1 and mid-summer, with a low temperature below 32°F.

Growing degree days

Growing degree days (GDDs) for a single day are computed here as the number of degrees Fahrenheit that the daily mean temperature exceeds 50°F. So, two d ays with daily mean temperatures of 75°F and 40°F have 25 and 0 GDDs, respectively. For annual total GDDs, the GDDs for each day are summed.

Freezing degree days

Freezing degree days (FDDs) for a single day are computed here as the number of degrees Fahrenheit that the daily mean temperature is below 32°F. So, two days with daily mean temperatures of 20°F and 40°F have 12 and 0 FDDs, respectively. For annual total FDDs, the FDDs for each day are summed.

Cooling degree days

Cooling degree days (CDDs) for a single day are computed here as the number of degrees Fahrenheit that the daily mean temperature exceeds 65°F. So, two days with daily mean temperatures of 75°F and 50°F have 10 and 0 CDDs, respectively. For annual total CDDs, the CDDs for each day are summed.

Heating degree days

Heating degree days (HDDs) for a single day are computed here as the number of degrees Fahrenheit that the daily mean temperature is below 65°F. So, two days with daily mean temperatures of 50°F and 75°F have 15 and 0 HDDs, respectively. For annual total HDDs, the HDDs for each day are summed.

Nights Below 0F

Cold Nights: Mean number of nights each year with a low temperature below 0F.

Days Below 20F

Cold Days: Mean number of days each year with a high temperature below 20F.

Days Above 90F

Hot Days: Mean number of days each year with a high temperature above 90F.

Days Above 100F

Hot Days: Mean number of days each year with a high temperature above 100F.

Frequency of 1” precipitation events

The frequency of 1” precipitation events is defined here as the number of days per decade with precipitation of at least one inch.

Frequency of 2” precipitation events

The frequency of 2” precipitation events is defined here as the number of days per decade with precipitation of at least two inches.

Frequency of 3” precipitation events

The frequency of 3” precipitation events is defined here as the number of days per decade with precipitation of at least three inches.

Snowfall

Annual snowfall (top - cm, bottom - %), determined by forcing the SNOW-17 model with the LCC statistical downscaling data.

Snow Depth

Nov-April mean snow depth (top - cm, bottom - %), determined by forcing the SNOW-17 model with the LCC statistical downscaling data.

Days With Snowpack

Mean number of days per year with a snowpack of at least 1 cm (top - days, bottom - %), determined by forcing the SNOW-17 model with the LCC statistical downscaling data.

Days With Snowpack 10"+

Mean number of days per year with a snowpack of at least 10 inches (top - days, bottom - %), determined by forcing the SNOW-17 model with the LCC statistical downscaling data.

Days With Snowfall

Mean number of days per year with a snowfall of at least 1 cm (top - days, bottom - %), determined by forcing the SNOW-17 model with the LCC statistical downscaling data.

Winter Severity Index

Winter Severity Index (WSI), relevant for white-tailed deer, based on frequency of days with 18"+ snow depth on ground and minimum temperature less than 0F.

Temp Spread

Spread in mean temperature (degrees Fahrenheit) changes by month by specific LCC region. For a map of the LCC regions, see www.doi.gov/lcc/index.chm. Projected changes for each of 9 global climate models (GCMs) are shown in thin black lines. The red and blue lines represent the mean and median changes among these models.

Prec Spread

Spread in mean precipitation (inches) changes by month by specific LCC region. For a map of the LCC regions, see www.doi.gov/l cc/index.chm. Projected changes for each of 9 global climate models (GCMs) are shown in thin black lines. The red and blue lines represent the mean and median changes among these models.